Medical Mycology: Open Access

About Medical Mycology: Open Access

Medical Mycology: Open Access

Eradication of invading pathogens has been a prime challenge for human being since beginning. Over the period, fungal resources turned out as one of the best resources for medicinal purpose. Scientific investigations and outstanding discoveries provided various lifesaving medicines which are extracted from fungal source.

To encourage the scientific discussion and update the information, the platform of Medical Mycology: Open Access has been established as a unique and important periodical. The journal considers articles confined to the relevant areas of medical mycology in general.

Aims & Scope:

This peer reviewed journal would like to establish as a reliable scientific information resource with the sole objective of fulfilling the global requirement of the academicians, researchers and scientists.

All relevant topics in the arena of medical mycology encompassing various novel compound extractions from fungal sources, use of different drugs such as ciclosporin, penicillin, statins, cephalosporin, ergometrine etc., novel application of fungal biochemical and microbiological tests for pharmaceutical purposes, studies in mycotoxicology are welcome.

Authors are encouraged to share their ideas and valuable research outcomes through this platform and provide the global readers, especially, microbiologists, clinicians, physicians, researchers in toxicology with updated and most important information in the subject.

Submit manuscript at http://www.editorialmanager.com/imedpub/ or send as an e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at medicalmycology@microbiologyjournals.org or mycology@microbiologyinsights.com

 

 

Medical Mycology

Medical mycology is the study of fungal infections. In immunocompromised hosts systemic fungal infections are usually seen. Systemic fungal infections lead to pulmonary infections. Fungal infections are usually seen on skin, nails, and hair. Common fungal infections are Intertrigo, Thrush, and Pityriasis versicolor, Athlete’s foot, nail infections, ring worm of the body, ring worm of the groin.

Related Journals of Medical Mycology

Medical Mycology Case Reports, Journal of Mycology, Mycology An International Journal on Fungal Biology, Virology & Mycology, Journal of Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis.

Environmental Mycology

Environmental mycology deals with application of fungi in the environment. Fungi are the decomposers, with their degradative enzymes clean up the biosphere. They are used in the biotransformation of organic compounds like pollutants both in aquatic and terrestrial environment. Fungi are applied in the biotechnology field for bioenergy purposes.

Related Journals of Environmental Mycology

Mycology,Korean Journal of Medical Mycology, Field Mycology, Medical Mycology Case Reports, Studies in Mycology.

Veterinary Mycology

Veterinary mycology is a branch deals with identification of veterinary fungi, pathophysiology and diagnosis of fungal infections, pharmacodynamics of antifungals in animals, epidemiology of animal mycoses, eradication and vaccine development against invasive veterinary fungal infections.

Related Journals of Veterinary Mycology

Epidemiology: Open Access, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, Journal of Epidemiology, Annals of Epidemiology, Clinical Epidemiology.

Phylogeny of Fungal Pathogens

Fungi have evolved from multiphyletic organisms. A fungus is classified under Protista kingdom. They are categorised into three categories –saprobes, mutualistic fungi, parasitic fungi. Phylogeny of fungi is chytridiomycota, zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota. They reproduce sexually and asexually.

Related Journals of Phylogeny of Fungal Pathogens

Fungal Biology,Fungal Diversity, Fungal Biology Reviews, Fungal Ecology, Current Fungal Infection Reports.

Epidemiology and Public Health

Epidemiology is a branch related to distribution of diseases among the population and the study to control health problems. It mainly focuses on public health. The main objective is to prevent premature deaths and disability from major health conditions and to promote health among individuals and populations.

Related Journals of Epidemiology and Public Health

Epidemiology: Open Access, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, Journal of Epidemiology, Annals of Epidemiology, Clinical Epidemiology.

Immunology of Fungal infections

The immune defence mechanisms against fungal infections are of two types – Innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Cell mediated immunity plays a major role against fungal infections by destroying fungus and protects body from reinfection. Antibody responses like Th1 cell mediated immunity helps in the depletion of fungal infection, while Th2 immunity leads to susceptibility of systemic fungal infections.

Related Journals of Immunology of Fungal infections

Journal of Immunooncology, Journal of Infectious Diseases & Therapy, Journal of Clinical Infectious Diseases & Practice, Immunological Disorders & Immunotherapy, Journal of Meningitis.

Pathogenesis and Virulence

Pathogenicity of fungi is its ability to invade the host and produce infection in the host by the expression of certain factors and also to withstand lytic activity of enzymes. Virulence is to multiply and cause harm by altering the gene or gene products in host. The transition of dimorphic fungi to parasitic form and the ability of a fungus to grow at 37°C and physiological pH is a virulence factor for fungi to invade deep tissue in the host.

Related Journals of Pathogenesis and Virulence

Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology, Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology, Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology, Journal of Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis, Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health.

Medical Mycology Research

Medical mycology research deals with research on human fungal diseases and veterinary fungal diseases, their epidemiology, their ecology. It gives better understanding of disease to the researchers and physicians. It also deals with virulence determinants, pathogenicity and interactions between host and parasite. It also provides standards for antifungal susceptibility tests.

Related Journals of Medical Mycology Research

Medical Mycology, Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology, Current topics in medical mycology, Korean Journal of Medical Mycology, Medical Mycology Case Reports.

Pathogenic Fungi

The fungi that are responsible for causing diseases in humans, animals and plants are referred to as Pathogenic fungi. Many of pathogenic fungi are naked in nature although they are eukaryotic. Candida species, Aspergillus species, Cryptococcus species, Histoplasma species are pathogenic in nature.

Related Journals of Pathogenic Fungi

North American Fungi, The Journal of Invasive Fungal Infections , Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Emerging Fungal Diseases, Invasive Fungal Infections

Zygomycetes

Zygomycetes are also known as Zygote fungi. The name Zygomycetes is named due to the production of spherical spores during sexual reproduction. They are usually characterised by aseptate hyphae. Some of the zygomycetous fungi are Apophysomyces elegans and Saksenaea vasiformis.

Related Journals of Zygomycetes

Virology & Mycology, Field Mycology, Medical Mycology Case Reports, Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Infections in Medicine.

Ascomycetes

Ascomycetes is the sub division of subfamily Dikarya. They are commonly known as sac fungi because they produce spores inside sacs. Pencillium species on cheese, Xylaria species, cordyceps fungi are some of the examples belong to this group.

Related Journals of Ascomycetes

Fungal Biology,Fungal Diversity, Fungal Biology Reviews, Fungal Ecology, Current Fungal Infection Reports.

Basidiomycetes

Basidiomycetes along with ascomycetes constitute the subkingdom Dikarya of the kingdom fungi. Mushrooms, mirror yeasts, jelly fungi and pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus are some examples belong to this group. Basidiomycota were further divided into Homobasidiomycetes and Heterobasidiomycetes.They reproduce by the formation of club shaped end cells called basidia in which spores are present.

Related Journals of Basidiomycetes

Medical Mycology: Open Access, Medical Mycology Case Reports, Journal of Mycology, Mycology An International Journal on Fungal Biology, Virology & Mycology.

Fungal Pathogenicity

The potential of fungi to cause diseases in the host. Most of the fungi are unicellular or filamentous. Changing cell shape or size is the new approach of fungi to sustain in the host body and cause disaease. For instance, Cryptococcus neoformans germinate spores in enlarged capsule which is antiphagocytic, immune suppressive and conceals the host antigens.

Related Journals of Fungal Pathogenicity

Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology, Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology, Journal of Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine.

Hyphomycetes

Hyphomycetes are also referred to as Deuteromycota or fungi imperfecti. These include Aspergillosis, dermatophytosis, hyalohyphomycosis. Gliocladium, Madurella, Geotrichum are some of the genus included under this phylum. They are identified by the shape, size, colour and texture of conidia. Many of hyphomycetes produce mycotoxins that affect human health.

Related Journals of Hyphomycetes

Medical Mycology, Japanese Journal of Medical Mycology, Current topics in medical mycology, Korean Journal of Medical Mycology, Medical Mycology Case Reports.

Skin Mycology

Fungal infections on the skin are referred as skin mycology. Among skin mycoses, superficial mycoses are the common and significant among the population. Other infections include Dimorphic systemic mycoses, Opportunistic systemic mycoses. Dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton spp, Microsporum spp, Epidermophyton spp are responsible for superificial mycoses.

Related Journals of Skin Mycology

Medical Mycology Case Reports, Journal of Mycology, Mycology An International Journal on Fungal Biology, Virology & Mycology, Journal of Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis.

Subcutaneous Mycoses

Subcutaneous Mycoses are chronic infections affecting subcutaneous tissue after skin trauma. This disease is more prevalent in tropics.Usually characterised by verrucal lesions. The causative fungi are saprophytes. Chromomycosis, Mycetoma, sporotrichosis, basidiobolomycosis, Rhinosporidiosis, Lobomycosis are the examples of subcutaneous mycoses.

Related Journal of Subcutaneous Mycoses

Fungal Biology,Fungal Diversity, Fungal Biology Reviews, Fungal Ecology, Current Fungal Infection Reports.

Sporotrichosis

Sporotrichosis is a chronic infection caused by the fungus Spotothrix schenckii. The fungus presence is mostly decaying vegetation, soil, plants. This disease usually occurs when minor skin traumas come in contact with contaminated vegetation. Primarily painless red or violet nodule appears on the arm,fingers and finally develops into ulcer. Sometimes this infection spreads to bones, joints and also CNS. Other symptoms include cough, fever and shortness of breath.

Related Journal of Sporotrichosis

Journal of Bacteriology & Parasitology, Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology, Journal of Clinical & Experimental Pathology, Journal of Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis, Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health.

Chromoblastomycosis

Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic subcutaneous infection caused by dematiaceous fungi usually Fonsecaea pedrosoi, Phialophora verrucosa, Cladosporium carrionii, or Fonsecaea compacta through the trauma of the skin. Primarily a warty nodule appears on the skin which is limited to subcutaneous tissue and later it spreads to healthy skin forming plaques.

Related Journal of Chromoblastomycosis

Epidemiology: Open Access, Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, Journal of Epidemiology, Annals of Epidemiology, Clinical Epidemiology.

Mycetoma

This infection is pertained to deep dermis and subcutaneous tissue and sometimes may also extend to underlying bone. It is a chronic infection results in inflammation caused by actinomycetes. Foot and hand are commonly infected through the sites of trauma. Lesions on the chest, back, head and neck are also seen. Disease transmission is through facial planes. Lymphatic spread is uncommon.

Histoplasmosis

Histoplasmosis is the disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. This infection mainly targets a lung which is caused by the inhalation of spores found in bird and bat droppings. In immune compromised individuals and AIDS affected people this infection is serious. Dry cough, Head ache, Muscle aches, fever, chills, joint pain are the symptoms noticed. The chance of this infection is more among pest control workers, poultry keepers, cave explorers, patients under cancer chemotherapy and individuals undergone organ transplantation.

Coccidioidomycosis

Coccidioidomycosis is also known as Valley fever caused by fungus Coccidioides immitis. This infection is caused by the inhalation of fungal spores. Symptoms are head ache, joint pains, muscle aches, cough, fever,fatigue and usually appear within 3 weeks after inhalation.Infection spreads from lungs to other parts like CNS, bones and joints. Coccidioidomycosis is endemic in western hemisphere.

Fungal Infections

Fungal infections are caused by yeast and dermatophytic fungi. Aspergillosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, sporotrichosis, coccidioidomycosis, candidiasis, athlete’s foot are the common fungal infections. Fungal infections lead to red, itchy skin. Antifungals agents are used to treat mycoses. Depending on the severity of infection antifungal treatment is available in the form of paints, lotions, creams. Maintenance of good hygiene is the best preventive measure.

Fungal Infection in Ear

Otomycosis is the fungal ear infection. It affects external auditory canal. Mostly caused by the invasion of Aspergillus spp and Candida spp. Symptoms include earache, fever, mild deafness, vertigo, ear discharge. Otitis externa, Otitis media, vestibular neuronitis are some other fungal ear infections. Causes may be upper respiratory tract infections, swimming in polluted water, sudden changes in air pressure.

Fungal Infection on Face

Rosacea, Seborrhis eczema, Cold sore, Carbuncle, Impetigo, Canker sore, Herpes stomatitis, Ichthyosis vulgaris, Acrodermatitis are the common facial fungal infections. These are superficial caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Symptoms include reddened skin, painful and sometimes accompanied by malaise and fever. Treatment is done by Dicloxacillin, Azithromycin, Amoxicillin and Vancomycin.

Fungal Diseases

Fungal diseases are referred as mycoses. They are classified again based on the penetration levels in the body. Superficial mycoses causing fungi grows on the skin. Subcutaneous mycoses penetrate below the skin to even connective and bone tissue. Cutaneous mycoses affect only superficial layers of the skin, hair and nails. Deep or systemic mycosis is fatal and infects internal organs of the body.

Fungal Sinusitis

Fungal infection of the sinuses is the major cause of chronic rhinosinusitis. Mycetoma Fungal Sinusitis, Allergic Fungal Sinusitis, Chronic Indolent Sinusitis, Fulminant Sinusitis are the different types of Fungal Sinusitis. Allergic Fungal Sinusitis mostly seen in immunocompetent host. Fulminant Sinusitis and Chronic Indolent Sinusitis which is invasive are seen in immune deficient hosts. Surgical removal of the fungal material is the recommended therapy for Fulminant Sinusitis and Chronic Indolent Sinusitis.

Fungal infections Pathology

Fungal infections are becoming endemic due to climatic changes, change in lifestyles. In modern times it has become easier to diagnose by the advancement in diagnostic radiology and tissue biopsy studies. Blastomycetes dermatitidis, Cryptococcus and Aspergillus conidia are diagnosed by budding yeasts. Rhinosporidium seeberi diagnosed by the presence of spherules with multiple endospores.

Fungal infection Treatment

Fungal infections treatment is broadly categorised into oral antifungal medication and topical antifungal medication.Oral medication is given when the infection is severe, interactions with other medications, resistance developed towards topical antifungals. Oral medications are preferred in case of dermatophyte and candidia species infections. Topical treatment is adjuvant to oral therapy for tinea barbae. Mould skin infections, yeast infections are treated through topical therapy.

Yeast Infection Treatment

Yeast infection treatment depends on the severity of the infection whether complicated or uncomplicated.

Uncomplicated yeast infection includes short course vaginal therapy in which clotrimazole, micanazole,terconazole are the medications and single dose oral medication in which Diflucan is administered.

Complicated yeast infection includes Long course therapy where medications are administered in form of ointment, vaginal cream and suppository. Multiple oral treatments involve fluconazole medication at two or three doses. Maintenance plan involves continuation of fluconazole weekly for six months or clotrimazole weekly as suppository replacing fluconazole.

Clinical Mycology

Clinical mycology deals with fungal laboratory diagnostic tests, morphology of fungi and moulds. It gives information about serologic tests for antibody, antigen and fungi metabolites. Clinical mycology calssifies infections based level of penetration and severity.It elucidates about antifungal susceptibilities testing and clinical findings.

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